Chronic inflammation in the etiology of disease across the life span. Citation: (Furman, 2019)

Chronic inflammatory diseases have been recognized as the most significant cause of death in the world today, with more than 50% of all deaths being attributable to inflammation-related diseases such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and autoimmune and neurodegenerative conditions[2]. Evidence is emerging that the risk of developing chronic inflammation can be traced back to early development, and i...


The anatomical basis for transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation. Citation: (Butt 2019)

Our metabolic functions (e.g. organs, glands, involuntary muscles) are influenced by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) via sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. The vagus nerve, the 10th longest of the cranial nerves, is a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system and serves to maintain homeostasis providing bidirectional communication between the body and brain.  The neuroatanomy of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) offers insight for an understanding of the ef...


Current Directions in the Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation II – An Engineering Perspective. Citation: (Kaniusas 2019, 772)

Bioelectronic medicine progressively comes into focus as offering a non-pharmaceutical treatment option for various diseases. Here neuromodulation of the vagus nerve (VN) has gained a special interest. In a comprehensive review technical issues, modeling concepts, regulatory and safety requirements, and novel architectures of open and closed-loop aVNS paradigms, Kaniusas and his colleagues focus on the physiological role of VN including a biology-driven rationale for Auricular Vagus Nerve Sti...


Peripheral effects of vagus nerve stimulation on anxiety and extinction of conditioned fear in rats. Citation: (Noble 2019)

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to enhance extinction of conditioned fear in rats. Previous findings support this finding. It is hypothesized that this is the result of enhanced consolidation of extinction memories through the promotion of plasticity in related neural pathways. There are other explanations as well. The work supports rapidly expanding research into VNS, both invasive VNS and transcutaneous VNS (which is most often applied at the ear, e.g. transcutaneous auricular ...


The Present and Future of Vagus Nerve Stimulation. Citation: (Yang 2019, 344-352)

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjunctive neuromodulation therapy that was approved in 1997 for the alleviation of seizures; however, efforts to control epilepsy by stimulating the vagus nerve have been studied for over 100 years. The ability for VNS to affect various brain areas, has a wide indication for various intractable epileptic syndromes and epilepsyrelated comorbidities. Moreover, recent studies have shown anti-inflammatory effects of VNS, and the indication is expanding beyond ...


Experimental Results in Auricular Medicine—A New Hypothesis. Citation: (Litscher 2018, 132)

This editorial proposes a multimodal concept for future research on the Vascular Autonomic Signal (VAS) through hypothesis concerning mechanisms of the VAS. Download the paper on Medicines (external link)  Litscher G, Yannacopoulos T, Kreisl P. Nogier Reflex: Physiological and Experimental Results in Auricular Medicine—A New Hypothesis. Medicines 2018;5(4):132. 


Tragus or cymba conchae? Investigating the anatomical foundation of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS). Citation: (Badran, 2018)

Badran et. al. provide commentary on the growing interest in modulating the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN). Researchers clearly want to know which ear target is optimal for taVNS e tragus or cymba conchae. Although the authors note discrepancies — identified by Burger and Verkuil in the investigation of a manuscript by Peuker and Filler describing vagus innervation of the ear — that they have found difficult to resolve, their commentary offers insights.[1] First, recognizing the i...


How Does Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy Work? A Systematic Review on Suggested Mechanisms of Action. Citation: (Landin-Romero 2018)

From eighty-seven studies three overarching models were identified as possible mechanism of action in EMDR: (i) psychological models (ii) psychophysiological models and (iii) neurobiological models. Read the full analyses and discussion in the paper presented on PubMed from Frontiers in Psychology. Reference: Landin-Romero R, Moreno-Alcazar A, Pagani M, Amann BL. How Does Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy Work? A Systematic Review on Suggested Mechanisms of Action. Front P...


Auricular Chromotherapy in the Treatment of Psychologic Trauma, Phobias, and Panic Disorder. Citation: (Yoshizumi 2018)

The use of auricular methods for application in the field of psychology is supported by research such as the positive treatment results from auricular chromotherapy presented by Alexandre Massao Yoshizumi, MS, Daniel Guillermo Asis, MD, and Fabiola Andrade Luz, PhD. The auricular chromotherapy protocol, a technique developed by Dr. Asis and Dr. Federico Zarragoicoechea (with contributions from Jorge Boucinhas and Rafäel Nogier, MD), shows that simple auricular methods — methods that require l...


Anatomo-Physiologic Basis for Auricular Stimulation. Citation: (Mercante 2018, 141-150)

The human ear (the auricle) offers access for neuromodulation in support of a broad range of therapeutic approaches. Auricular methods work well under both biomedical and biopsychosocial models (for pain and other conditions). From Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation,[1] to acupuncture,[3][6] to psychological frameworks such as Polyvagal Theory, Trauma-Informed Care, and Somatic Psychology,[2-3] auricular methods provide an integrative pathway to healing that is grounded in a holistic...


Auriculotherapy in Neurology as an Evidence-Based Medicine: A Brief Overview. Citation: (Stanton 2018, 130-132)

Gary Stanton, MD, provides an overview of how ear acupuncture is used in the treatment of various neurologic conditions. Although not comprehensive, this paper offers informative citations (primarily journal articles referenced in PubMed) to demonstrate that auriculotherapy used in neurology is an evidence-based medicine. Read the full paper (external link) Reference: Stanton G. Auriculotherapy in Neurology as an Evidence-Based Medicine: A Brief Overview. Med Acupunct. 2018;30(3):130–132.


Auricular Interventions in Neurology: the Vascular Autonomic Signal Challenge. Citation: (Quah-Smith, 2018)

Dr. Im Quah-Smith, MD, PhD, conjoint lecturer for Women’s and Children’s Health the University of New South Wales Medicine Program, points to evidence, clinical applications, and several use cases, to argue for broader use of Vascular Autonomic Signal (VAS) palpation in Auricular interventions (Auricular Medicine, ear acupuncture, transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation, and low-level laser therapy): “Today Auricular Medicine has strong biological and clinical evidence for its application with...