Since the early part of the 20th century, electro therapy has been used to treat severe depression. With the advance of new devices — e.g. low-level current for neuronal stimulation via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and vagus as well as transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (VNS and tVNS) — the study and treatment of cognitive function in patients with epilepsy and major depression has had significant advance from early “shock therapy.” Given the importance of the vagal nerve on regulated neural states of health, as well as the safe, non-invasive neuromodulation methods available to clinicians via tVNS on the ear — which a conclusive fMRI study has shown that sham conditions produce no activation in the cortex and brain stem (Kraus et. al, 2013) — Leusden and colleagues present a well researched article on the use of tVNS as an approach for neuromodulation beyond simply epilepsy and major depression. See link to this opinion article in Frontiers in Psychology.
The Canadian Institute of Auricular Medicine (CIAM) has been providing professionally endorsed and approved continuing education in Auricular Medicine for healthcare and wellness practitioners since 2003. CIAM recognizes the confluence of the sciences in Traditional Chinese Medicine, neuroscience, energy medicine, bio medicine, bio electronic medicine and therapeutic approaches in psychology, physiotherapy and naturopathy. The work of Leusden points to the neuro-stimulative effects present in all of these areas of medicine for decades (if not, in some practices, centuries and even millennia).