Non-invasive Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation as a Potential Treatment for Covid19-Originated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Citation: (Kaniusas 2020)

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by an invasion of the alveolar epithelial cells by coronavirus 19. The most severe outcome of the disease is the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) combined with hypoxemia and cardiovascular damage. ARDS and co-morbidities are associated with inflammatory cytokine storms, sympathetic hyperactivity, and respiratory dysfunction. The authors present and justify a novel potential treatment for Covid19-originated ARDS and associated co-morbidities, ...


Review of Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Challenges for Translation to Clinical Practice. Citation: (Yap 2020)

Several studies investigating the use of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) for disorders tinnitus, migraine and pain show therapeutic effects similar to those produced by the more invasive direct vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Although VNS is an FDA-approved therapy for the treatment of both depression and epilepsy, it is limited to being a second or third-line treatment option for severe, intervention-resistant cases, due to risks involved with device implantation. In contrast, t...


The anatomical basis for transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation. Citation: (Butt 2019)

Our metabolic functions (e.g. organs, glands, involuntary muscles) are influenced by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) via sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. The vagus nerve, the 10th longest of the cranial nerves, is a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system and serves to maintain homeostasis providing bidirectional communication between the body and brain.  The neuroatanomy of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) offers insight for an understanding of the ef...


Current Directions in the Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation II – An Engineering Perspective. Citation: (Kaniusas 2019, 772)

Bioelectronic medicine progressively comes into focus as offering a non-pharmaceutical treatment option for various diseases. Here neuromodulation of the vagus nerve (VN) has gained a special interest. In a comprehensive review technical issues, modeling concepts, regulatory and safety requirements, and novel architectures of open and closed-loop aVNS paradigms, Kaniusas and his colleagues focus on the physiological role of VN including a biology-driven rationale for Auricular Vagus Nerve Sti...


The Present and Future of Vagus Nerve Stimulation. Citation: (Yang 2019, 344-352)

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjunctive neuromodulation therapy that was approved in 1997 for the alleviation of seizures; however, efforts to control epilepsy by stimulating the vagus nerve have been studied for over 100 years. The ability for VNS to affect various brain areas, has a wide indication for various intractable epileptic syndromes and epilepsyrelated comorbidities. Moreover, recent studies have shown anti-inflammatory effects of VNS, and the indication is expanding beyond ...


Auricular Neuromodulation: The Emerging Concept beyond the Stimulation of Vagus and Trigeminal Nerves. Citation: (Mercante 2018, 10)

In a review of TNS, tVNS and Auricular Stimulation, Benjamina Mercante (and her colleagues Franca Deriu, and Claire-Marie Rangon) present possible sites and mechanisms of action in the Central Nervous System. The paper suggests that with the continuous advancement since the auricular maps of physician Paul Nogier, the field of advanced non-invasive neuromodulation via the ear, due to the innervation by the cervical plexus, may become the most affordable, accurate and powerful gateway to the b...


Neurophysiologic effects of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) via electrical stimulation of the tragus: A concurrent taVNS/fMRI study and review. Citation: (Badran 2017)

Since prior studies of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have had inconsistent findings (owing to variability in stimulation targets and parameters), the authors undertook to develop a transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) system enabling the comparison of taVNS in relation to control stimulation through concurrent electrical stimulation and fMRI acquisit...


Transcutaneous Vagal Nerve Stimulation (tVNS): a new neuromodulation tool in healthy humans? Citation: (Leusden 2015)

Since the early part of the 20th century, electro therapy has been used to treat severe depression. With the advance of new devices — e.g. low-level current for neuronal stimulation via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and vagus as well as transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (VNS and tVNS) — the study and treatment of cognitive function in patients with epilepsy and major depression has had significant advance from early “shock therap...


Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation Modulates Default Mode Network in Major Depressive Disorder. Citation: (Fang 2016, 266-273)

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a Food and Drug Administration approved somatic treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy and depression. In vivo VNS systems, however, are an option limited to patients who have failed to respond to multiple treatment options. Transcutaneous VNS (tVNS) is a non-invasive method based on afferent/efferent vagus nerve distribution on the surface of the ear. The safe and low-cost characteristics of tVNS have the potential to significantly expand the clinical applicat...