Transcutaneous Vagal Nerve Stimulation (tVNS): a new neuromodulation tool in healthy humans? Citation: (Leusden 2015)

Since the early part of the 20th century, electro therapy has been used to treat severe depression. With the advance of new devices — e.g. low-level current for neuronal stimulation via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and vagus as well as transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (VNS and tVNS) — the study and treatment of cognitive function in patients with epilepsy and major depression has had significant advance from early “shock therap...