Transcutaneous Vagal Nerve Stimulation (tVNS): a new neuromodulation tool in healthy humans? Citation: (Leusden 2015)

Since the early part of the 20th century, electro therapy has been used to treat severe depression. With the advance of new devices — e.g. low-level current for neuronal stimulation via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and vagus as well as transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (VNS and tVNS) — the study and treatment of cognitive function in patients with epilepsy and major depression has had significant advance from early “shock therap...


Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation Modulates Default Mode Network in Major Depressive Disorder. Citation: (Fang 2016, 266-273)

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a Food and Drug Administration approved somatic treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy and depression. In vivo VNS systems, however, are an option limited to patients who have failed to respond to multiple treatment options. Transcutaneous VNS (tVNS) is a non-invasive method based on afferent/efferent vagus nerve distribution on the surface of the ear. The safe and low-cost characteristics of tVNS have the potential to significantly expand the clinical applicat...